Friday, February 3, 2017

We Are an Ancient People: A New Perspective on the Celtic Diaspora, 1745 to the Present


“Tá muid ar na daoine acient,” (We are an Ancient People), A New Perspective on the Celtic Diaspora, 1745 to the Present 

A PhD Dissertation Prospectus 

Kent Allen Halliburton

Presented on 4/18/2014

Oh father dear I oft-times hear you talk of Erin´s Isle
Her lofty scenes and valleys green, her mountains rude and wild
They say it is a pretty place where-in a prince might d’well
Then why did you abandon it? The reason to me tell.

My son I loved our native land with energy and pride
Until a blight came on the land and sheep and cattle died,
The rent and taxes were to pay, I could not them redeem,
And that´s the cruel reason why I left old Skibbereen.

It´s well I do remember that bleak December day,
The landlord and the sheriff came to drive us all away;
They set the roof on fire with their demon yellow spleen,
And that´s another reason why I left old Skibbereen.

It´s well I do remember the year of forty-eight
When I arose with Erin´s boys to fight against the fate,
I was hunted through the mountains for a traitor to the Queen
And that´s another reason why I left old Skibbereen.

Oh father dear, the day will come when vengeance loud will call,
And we will rise with Erin´s boys and rally one and all,
I´ll be the man to lead the van beneath our flag of green,
And loud and high we´ll raise the cry: ´Revenge for Skibbereen.´

Patrick Carpenter, “Dear Old Skibbereen,” The Irish singer's own book: Containing a Large, Choice, and Popular Selection of Songs, Ballads and Recitations, Pathetic and Humorous, Social Entertainments and the Fireside (Noonan, Boston, 1880)

Prologue

I am Kent Allen Halliburton, son of Katherine LeeAnn Halliburton Marks. Katherine is the daughter of Raymond Joseph Halliburton. Raymond is the son of Thomas Raymond Halliburton. Thomas is the son of Ralph Halliburton. Ralph is the son of Joseph Holman Halliburton. Joseph is the son of Westley Halliburton. Westley is the son of Ambrose Halliburton. Ambrose is the son of David Halliburton, Jr. David is the son of David Halliburton, Sr. (William Kenneth Rutherford and Anna Clay Rutherford, Eds., Genealogical History of the Halliburton Family (Kansas City, MO: Brown, White, Lowell Press, 1959), 19-80, 91, 114, 153, 208, 276, 319). After this, the history is hazy. The name that comes up most often as David, Sr.’s father is John Halliburton of Tweed, and the sources on his father are even hazier, though the name that comes up most often is George (Kent Allen Halliburton, Raymond Joseph Halliburton: An Oral History (Fort Worth, TX: Texas Wesleyan University Research Project, 2009), 1-2). John had four sons, Thomas, George, David and William. These four men were involved in the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a claimant to the Scottish throne through James Stuart, King James VI of Scotland and King James I of England. Thomas and George fell at the final battle of that conflict, the Battle of Culloden Moor. David and William survived. For their participation in the rebellion, these men were given three options. They could be executed, enlisted into the British Army, or exiled to the American colonies never to return to Scotland. Not wanting to die and certainly not wanting to serve in the army that they had just fought, they chose exile. They arrived in the King’s Colony of Virginia in 1746 (Halliburton, 4-6).

This story has always drawn me into the past. It has helped me to know that I have a strong lineage and a vibrant history. The story that is harder to prove, however, is what has really driven me to pursue this topic. There is an oral history tradition in my family. The tale that I speak of is one passed down from father to son for over 200 years. The story was told to me by my grandfather, Raymond Joseph Halliburton, and it was told to him by hist father, and it was told to him by his father, and so forth. The story was told to me like this:

“Kent, you were born into a proud family, one with a proud history and a passion for life. You are the son of my daughter Katherine. I am the son of Thomas Raymond, the son of Ralph, the son of Joseph Holman, the son of Westley, the son of Ambrose, the son of David, Jr., the son of David, Sr., the son of John, the son of George. There is a story that has been passed down from father to son since David, Sr. first came to this country. In 1746, he was exiled from Scotland to the Colony of Virginia as a political enemy of the British Crown. Before he left, though, his father bound him and his brother William by oath. They swore to their father that they would do their best to return home when it was safe. If, by circumstance, however, they were unable to do so, it was their duty to pass on their story. They were sworn to teach their children who they were and to encourage them to return to the land that gave birth to their fathers to pay homage" (Raymond Joseph Halliburton, Halliburton Family Oral History Tradition (Carried down from father to son in the Halliburton family since 1746).

My pursuit of history is dedicated to these people. I hope only that I am able to live up to the expectations that their legacy has placed upon me, “Alba gu bràth!” (Scotland Forever!)


Introduction

Ancient Roots:

The Celts were the first group of people, north of the Alps, to emerge into recorded history, but there are references to them as far back as the Sixth Century B.C.E. in the writings of the Greeks. Some scholars of the Celts in Italy even place them in Italy as early as 1,000 B.C.E., evidenced by Roman historical works, and old boundary markers written in the Etruscan language. They have pictures of Celts on them. In early times, they are only heard of in the writings of other cultures because, prior to Christianization, they had a religious prohibition that forbade writing down their store of knowledge. They transferred knowledge orally. The Celts, namely the Gallic tribes, and later the Britons, though they were conquered, were a thorn in the side of the Roman Empire. Julius Cesar was the most famous man of the Roman military leaders to whom they gave recorded hell. The earliest discernibly Celtic cultures were the Hallstatts and the La Tene (Peter Berresford Ellis, The Celtic Empire: The First Millennium of Celtic History, c. 1000 B.C.-51 A.D. (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1990), 9-22, 23-42, 118-126, 191-204). Early on, they faced off with the Carthaginians in Iberia, where they played a big role in keeping Carthage from seeking lands north of the Pyrenees. At this time they were also feared by the Romans as a fierce enemy to be weary of. Going back further, while there is evidence of Celts in Italy as early as 1,000 B.C.E., there is also evidence to support that Celts, the Scythian tribes, were present on the shores of the Black Sea as early as 1,800 B.C.E. (Gerhard Herm, The Celts: The People Who Came Out of the Darkness (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1975, 1-13, 101-117).

The height of the Celts in central Europe actually came during the rule of the Romans, in the Third Century. It was after this period that their culture went into decline as the Romans solidified their rule. In the end, the last free tribes of Celts were those north of Hadrian’s Wall and in Ireland (Barry W. Cunlifee, The Ancient Celts (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 235-257). There is, then, of course, post-Roman Britain. When the Romans left, several Celtic kingdoms were established in what was Rome such as, Cunedda and Laighin. The area that was once Roman Britain was also influenced by the Irish Celts raiding into Britain, as well as the Germanic Anglo-Saxon tribes that were pressuring Roman Britain. It was these Anglo-Saxon invaders that as of the year 584 C.E., had subdued the Celts of lower Britain. The only remaining centers of Celtic culture after this were what is now Scotland and Ireland (Daithi O’Hogain, The Celts: A Chronological History (Woodbridge, Suffolk, United Kingdom: Boydell Press, 2002), 197-221).

The Problem:

History clearly shows that very few people initially immigrated to this country because they absolutely wanted to. Migration is something that humans have been doing for the entirety of their history, dating back to their earliest origins millions of years ago. It is something that can be both voluntary and involuntary. People can have the need for more space, they can outgrow their environment, or they can be forced out by drought or a rise in sea levels. Climatic or environmental circumstances were important factors early on, accompanied by the need for land and resources. War and other sources of forced migration have also been major contributing factors (Peter A. Bellwood, First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective (Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2013), 4-6, 243-248). That is, of course, painfully true for African Americans. The first Africans slaves were taken from the coast of Mauritania in 1441 by a Portuguese trade vessel. As time passed, an international trade was developed and expanded to include peoples from the interior of Africa, which included much of the Muslim population of West Africa ( Janet J. Ewald, “Slavery in Africa and the Slave Trades from Africa,” American Historical Review 97 (1992), 465-485). The industry in the Atlantic did not end until the 1830s when the British Parliament passed legislation outlawing the trade of slaves across the Antlantic (Johannes Postma, The Atlantic Slave Trade (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2003), 1-18, 63-76). Once these Africans were on the ships, the trip was not at all humane. Men, women, and children were stuffed into the bottom of ships like sardines. They were poorly fed, they were not given proper sanitation facilities, they were beaten and assaulted, and they were regularly exposed to disease. This all but guaranteed that many of them would die before ever reaching their forcefully imposed destination ( Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), 291-314).

What of the Celts, then? Why is it that when talking about the involuntary nature of different peoples’ trips to the United States, the Celts are not included in the discussion? Hearing the lyrics of “Dear Old Skibbereen,” would lead one to believe that the man that wrote the song was not happy that he had to leave and was well aware that he left because he was forced to do so. The Halliburton Family Oral Tradition would also make this seem apparent. Why would sons swear to their father to return to their homeland if they could, if it was their intention to leave in the first place? They made such an oath because they did not want to leave. There are also limited sources on how the Celts were treated when they came to the American colonies and later the United States. The Irish provide the best example of this. They also provide the best example of how the Celts resisted their poor treatment in this country, which is another topic that is rarely discussed in American history. Also, as time as gone by, many Celts have lost their culture. Their names are Anglicized, they have adopted the religion of the dominant culture, and they have forgotten who they are by becoming white, which has led them to taking part in events and actions that were very similar in nature to the way that their own ancestors were treated. This project is an effort to explore and explain this problem. It is also an effort to understand how this problem can begin to reverse itself.

Chapter 1: The Celts did not come here because they wanted to.

With the Celts, focusing on the Scottish and the Irish, two main events are central to understanding the involuntary nature of the Celts’ departure from the British Isles. For the Scottish, the Jacobite Rebellion, led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie,” against the British Crown in 1745 will be examined. In 1745, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a claimant to the Scottish Throne and a Jacobite, made an improbable trip to Scotland, where he rose up against the British Crown in an attempt to establish an independent Scottish state (usan Maclean Kybett, Bonnie Prince Charlie: A Biography of Charles Edward Stuart (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1988), 111-134). Aligned with the Highland Clans, he faced the Duke of Cumberland, his troops, and other supporters at the Battle of Culloden Moor on April 16, 1746. This was the final of several battles. It was a decisive defeat for “Bonnie Prince Charlie” and his supporters, many of whom, along with himself, were sent into exile for their resistance to the Crown. Some of the exiles, those people who had not accepted death or enlistment into the British Army, made their way to the Americas (Neil Davidson, Discovering the Scottish Revolution, 1692-1746 (London: Pluto, 2003), 228-271).

By 1845 in Ireland, when the Irish Potato Famine began, the land, especially that in the western half of the island, was over farmed and overpopulated. Ireland, at this time, part of the British Empire, was ruled by British Lords. These Lords found such conditions unsustainable (Colm Toibin, The Irish Famine (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001), 3-36). It was Irish peasants that were over farming and overpopulating the island. Impoverished by British demands for wheat and beef to feed their armies, the Irish relied on a single crop, the potato. They were given very little option, as this crop was imported by those very same British Lords to keep the them fed. In 1845, this dietary staple was afflicted with a fungal infection. It affected the entire island and caused countless deaths from starvation and disease. Many of the Irish peasants remained where they were, but those that could, left for better opportunities. There were also many that were simply rounded up by the British and removed from the land that they had called home. They left Ireland in droves, headed first to Liverpool, in England, where they then boarded ships bound for the United States (James S. Donnelly, The Great Irish Potato Famine (Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom: Sutton Publishing, 2001), 41-56, 169-186).

Chapter 2: The Celts were not treated well when they got here.

The Irish experience is the most representative of the poor treatment of the Celts in the United States. Many Irish immigrants came to the Americas long before the Great Famine. However, the famine was the most dramatic cause of Irish Emigration. Just to get here they had to endure a hard trip themselves. On the trip here, many were beaten or robbed or both, and women faced the prospect of rape. They had poor sanitary facilities, little food, and very little space to live comfortably, which resulted in many deaths. This could easily be referred to as the “Irish Middle Passage.” Once they got here, they were also exposed to unscrupulous business men, who thought poorly of the Irish. They faced shifty runners, cheating boardinghouse keepers, and dishonest grog house operators. They were also, many times, duped by counterfeiters. They unknowingly purchased fake canal, railroad, and riverboat tickets. They also faced conditions of abject poverty when they first got here. Most of them were poor farmers in Ireland, and they had no industrial work experience. This left them to the most menial low paying jobs available. This also led them to living in ghettos, like the Five Points, in old Lower Manhattan, plagued by gang violence, disease, and hunger (Lawrence John McCaffrey, Textures of Irish America (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1992), 1-46). They were also more likely to be quarantined for potential disease on the ships in which they were packed into like sardines. Once allowed to pass, these ghettos that they were forced to live in upon arrival, were cramped, filthy, and depraved. Newly arrived immigrants were constantly at risk of being exposed to epidemic diseases like cholera. They also faced demeaning personal health inspections as early as 1855. They also experienced discrimination in public medical facilities and were without adequate care until various Catholic charities opened parochial hospitals (Alan M. Kraut, “Illness and Medical Care Among Irish Immigrants in Antebellum New York,” in Ronald H. Barry and Timothy J. Meagher, Eds., The New York Irish (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 153-168).

The Irish, being very much Roman Catholic, also experienced anti-Catholic discrimination, to the point that an angry mob in Philadelphia attacked a Catholic Church Thomas D’Arcy McGee, A History of the Irish Settlers in North America: From the Earliest Period to the Census of 1850 (A Reprint from 1851, Boston: Office of the “American Celt,” Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1989), 142-147). The Irish also experienced discrimination in schools. Publicly funded schools in cities like New York routinely sought to force Irish Catholic students to read a Protestant version of the Bible as a part of their required education. This led to Irish students not receiving a sufficient education, or parents having to shell out large sums of money to send their children to parochial schools, which were constantly struggling for money because they were refused public funding. There was also a political party, the Know-Nothings, an American Nativist party that gained brief success before the Civil War supporting such actions. Irish Catholics were also exposed to the Nativist paranoia of such groups because of a reoccurring rumor, from the 1830s to the 1850s, that European Despots were using Catholicism to destroy America’s Beacon of Freedom (Lawrence John McCaffrey, The Irish Diaspora in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), 85-106).

Chapter 3: The Celts fought their poor treatment.

The Irish also had interesting ways of resisting the poor treatment with which they had to contend. When poor Irishmen were confined to ghettos, their first main option was to resort to criminal behavior. Organized out of speakeasy establishments as early as the 1820s and lasting through the Civil War, gangs like the Plug Uglies, the Dead Rabbits, the Roach Guards, the Bowery Boys, the Chichesters, and the Shirt Tails fought authorities and fought each other over the share of booty that was gained in their well renowned exploits in thievery and thuggery ( Herbert Asbury, The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2001, a Reprint of New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1928), 19-41). Another option for the Irish was rioting. A risky business, much like the criminal lifestyle of the gangs, regular Irishman could express their discontent for whatever condition they had had enough of that day. Riots were actually a common thing, especially in New York City. The most famous riot in New York City was the 1863 Draft Riot. The Irish were not the only people that rioted that day. A whole slew of poor New Yorkers retaliated against the Emergency Draft instituted by the Federal Government in 1863, but this was a riot in which poor Irishman, who could not “pay out” of the draft, expressed their discontent for being forced into something that they did not want. The estimated number of deaths from the riot exceeded one-thousand; many of the dead were African Americans (Adrian Cook, The Armies of the Streets: The New York Draft Riot of 1863 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1974), 18-46, 48-75, 192-209).

The Irish also had the option of participating in politics. Most of them joined the Democrats as soon as they arrived in the United States. Furthermore, despite their relative poverty, many were able to get involved in the political machines in cities like New York. They ran for office on occasion, and more often, played a swing role between the machines of the Federalists, Tammany Hall, and other later parties like the Whigs (Carl Wittke, The Irish in America (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1956), 103-113). Still another option was to join the Union Army, if they were in the North, or they could, during the Civil War, join the Confederates in the South. They could remain in poor conditions in the cities or isolation on farms, or they could make an investment in the future of their adopted country. Many, many Irish did that very thing. The Irish Brigade was formed by the Union Army in 1861 for Irishmen who wished to serve the Union cause and make a name for themselves in defense of their adopted homeland. The most famous Regiment of the Brigade was “the Fighting 69th” New York Infantry Regiment. They suffered some of the heaviest loss rates of any unit in the Union Army, but they were still present at battles from the Peninsula Campaign all the way to Appomattox Courthouse (Daniel M. Callaghan, Thomas Francis Meagher and the Irish Brigade in the Civil War (Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 2006), 27-34, 61-72, 171-179). Political and military exploits also facilitated the development of another option for the Irish. It helped them to be accepted as “white,” which did a lot to end the discrimination that they had previously endured (Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Chapter 4: The Celts assimilated into and adopted the practices of the dominant culture….Economics

It was economically viable for the Celts to assimilate into the dominant culture. It opened them up to greater job opportunities and allowed them access to all the trappings of success that they could not otherwise afford. It also, unfortunately allowed them to participate in the oppression of another people, who were in much the same condition as the Celts were when they arrived, as they were party to limiting African American’s economic opportunities (Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Chapter 5: The Celts assimilated into and adopted the practices of the dominant culture….Education

Assimilation was also viable for Celts because it gave them access to better educational opportunities, which allowed them to build a future for their children that would not be mired in poverty. Again, this also allowed them participate in the suppression of African Americans by ensuring that receiving a quality education would very difficult for them. The goal was to keep them from rising above their condition of menial labor (Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Chapter 6: The Celts assimilated into and adopted the practices of the dominant culture….The Crutch of Race

Race also made assimilation viable for the Celts. While they were technically not ethnically similar to WASPS, they did have a very big advantage at their disposal. They had the same skin tone. This was the primary factor that made assimilation possible. It also saved them from further discrimination and allowed them to participate in the suppression of African Americans (Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Conclusion: The Celts can remember their heritage and help to end the problem.

The Conclusion will review all six chapters, very briefly assess the present situation in the United States, and then offer suggestions for the future (Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

There are still some major outstanding issues:

Poverty, racism, race crime, poor education, dilapidated urban centers, homelessness, hunger, and many other issues still play a big role in American society. Furthermore, the ratio of who experiences these problems is out of balance. It leans, in a large way, towards racial minorities.

What Can be Done to Help the Situation?

First of all, a lot has already been done, but there is still much left undone. The Celts are locked in a common struggle with the great majority of the American people, one in which their livelihoods, their civil rights, and their children's futures are all under constant attack. It is also, however, one in which they are still divided along the same lines that they have been in the past. Despite this, the Celts do have the tools to available to them to permanently break the cycle of division. They can remember who they are. They can learn about their ancient heritage, discover how badly their ancestors were treated when they came here, and they can reject the identity that they have obtained through assimilation into the dominant culture. They can realize that in reality, they have more in common with the history of African Americans than they do with their WASP patrons. This would be a defection from which the dominant culture would not be able to recover (Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 1995).

Bibliography

Primary Sources:

These sources are only a beginning point. The success or failure of this argument will be determined largely by interpretive commentary. However, the use of primary source materials will be the most critical because they will shape the interpretive commentary. Government documents from England, Scotland, Ireland, and the United States will be needed to find such things as vital statistics or logistical documents relating to the deportation of peoples or numbers of peoples fleeing famine, disease, or war. Military records, such as the communications between a field commander and his superiors will also be needed. The papers of the Duke of Cumberland would be a magnificent source to understand the unwanted the departure that the Scots of the 1745 rebellion faced. Old newspapers would also be of benefit when discussing the Irish gangs of the Five Points or events like the Draft Riots of 1863.

Personal letters, ballads, and other similar personal materials would also be vital. Ships’ manifests listing cargo and passengers of the ships that carried the Irish would be important. Immigration records from the era would help with the Irish. There are also places in each of these nations that could provide evidence that the memories of the Jacobite rebellion and the Great Famine remain in the popular memory that cannot be found in documents. Oral histories from families in the United States could offer leads for where to go. For Chapters five, six, and seven, many of these same sources would also be of assistance, but personal interviews with people would also be helpful. People like Dr. Noel Ignatiev, and some of the people with whom he has worked over the years, could offer commentary on how to make rejection of the dominant culture a possibility. He has been a major contributor to the movement to abolish the artificial social construct that is “whiteness,” in an effort to create a more culturally diverse and racially serene environment in the United States. His publication, Race Traitor, is a great way to see what he is doing to help this effort along (Noel Ignatiev and John Garvey, Eds., Race Traitor (New York: Routledge, 1996). There are many other sources that have not been mentioned that need to be taken into consideration, but they will be addressed as they come up during research.

Cover Page:

Carpenter, Patrick. “Dear Old Skibbereen.” The Irish singer's own book: Containing a Large, Choice, and Popular Selection of Songs, Ballads and Recitations, Pathetic and Humorous, Social Entertainments and the Fireside . Noonan, Boston, 1880. Found at http://martindardis.com/skibbereen_lyrics_chords.html. April 12, 2014.

“Tá muid ar na daoine acient,” Irish Gaelic. “We are an ancient people,” English. Translation obtained from Google Translate. https://translate.google.com/?hl=en&tab=wT#en/ga/We%20are%20an%20acient%20people. April 11, 2014.

Prologue:
Alba gu bràth!” Scots Gaelic. “Scotland Forever!” English. Translation confirmed on Ask.com. http://www.ask.com/question/translation-of-alba-gu-brath. April 15, 2014.

Halliburton, Kent Allen. Raymond Joseph Halliburton: An Oral History. Fort Worth, TX: Texas Wesleyan University Research Project, 2009.

Halliburton, Raymond Joseph. Halliburton Family Oral History Tradition. Carried down from father to son in the Halliburton family since 1746.

Rutherford, William Kenneth and Anna Clay Rutherford, Eds. Genealogical History of the Halliburton Family. Kansas City, MO: Brown, White, Lowell Press, 1959.

Introduction:

Ancient Roots:

Cunlifee, Barry W. The Ancient Celts. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

O’Hogain, Daithi. The Celts: A Chronological History. Woodbridge, Suffolk, United Kingdom: Boydell Press, 2002.

Ellis, Peter Berresford. The Celtic Empire: The First Millennium of Celtic History, c. 1000 B.C.-51 A.D. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1990.

Herm, Gerhard. The Celts: The People Who Came Out of the Darkness. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1975.

The Problem:

Bellwood, Peter A. First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell, 2013.

Ewald, Jane J. “Slavery in Africa and the Slave Trades from Africa,” American Historical Review 97 (1992), 465-485.

Postma, Johannes. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2003.

Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Chapter 1: The Celts did not come here because they wanted to.

Donnelly, James S. The Great Irish Potato Famine. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom: Sutton Publishing, 2001.

Davidson, Neil. Discovering the Scottish Revolution, 1692-1746. London: Pluto, 2003.

Kybett, Susan Maclean. Bonnie Prince Charlie: A Biography of Charles Edward Stuart. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1988.

Toibin, Colm. The Irish Famine. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.

Chapter 2: The Celts were not treated well when they got here.

Bayor, Ronald H. and Timothy J. Meagher, Eds. The New York Irish. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

McCaffrey, Lawrence John. The Irish Diaspora in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976.

McCaffrey, Lawrence John. Textures of Irish America. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1992.

McGee, Thomas D’Arcy. A History of the Irish Settlers in North America: From the Earliest Period to the Census of 1850. A Reprint from 1851, Boston: Office of the “American Celt,” Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1989.

Chapter 3: The Celts fought their poor treatment.

Asbury, Herbert. The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2001, a Reprint of New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1928.

Callaghan, Daniel M. Thomas Francis Meagher and the Irish Brigade in the Civil War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 2006.

Cook, Adrian. The Armies of the Streets: The New York Draft Riot of 1863. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1974.

Ignative, Noel. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Wittke, Carl. The Irish in America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1956.

Chapter 4: The Celts assimilated into and adopted the practices of the dominant culture….Economics

Allen, Ruth Alice. The Great Southwest Strike. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1942.

Brazeal, Brailsford Reese. The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: Its Origin and Development. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1946.

Duncan, Cynthia M. Rural Poverty in America. New York: Auburn House, 1992.

Gillette, Michael L. Launching the War on Poverty: An Oral History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Howe, Louis Kapp. The White Majority: Between Poverty and Affluence. New York, Random House, 1970.

Kreiswirth, Brian J. Perspectives on Persistent African American Poverty. Ann Arbor, MI: Hathitrust, 1994.

Laughlin, Rosemary. The Pullman Strike of 1894: American Labor Comes of Age. Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 1999.

Lens, Sidney. Poverty, America’s Enduring Paradox: A History of the Richest Nation’s Unwon War. New York: Crowell, 1969.

Miller, Herman Philip. Poverty, American Style. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1966.

Orleck, Aneelise and Lisa Gayle Hazirjian. The War on Poverty: A New Grassroots History, 1964-1980. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2011.

Pimpare, Stephen. A People’s History of Poverty in America. New York: New Press, 2008.

Polednak, Anthony P. Segregation, Poverty, and Mortality in Urban African Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Wilson, Joseph F. Tearing Down the Color Bar: A Documentary History and Analysis of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

Chapter 5: The Celts assimilated into and adopted the practices of the dominant culture….Education

Beck, Robert Holmes. A Social History of American Education. Englewood, Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1965.

Deutsch, Stephanie. You Need a Schoolhouse: Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald, and the Building of Schools for the Segregated South. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2011.

French, Scott A., Craig Barton, and Peter Flora. Booker T. Washington Elementary School and Segregated Education in Virginia. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 2007.

Goldstrom, J.M. Education: Elementary Education, 1780-1900. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1972.

Hood, Harry Gehman. A History of American Eduation. New York: Macmillan, 1956.

Melvin, A. Gordon. Education: A History. New York: The John Day Company, 1946.

Pulliam, John D. History of American Education. Columbus: Merrill Publishing Co., 1987.

Walker, Vanessa Siddle. Their Highest Potential: An African American School Community in the Segregated South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Winfield, Ann Gibson. Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology and Memory. New York: Peter Lang, 2007.

Chapter 6: The Celts assimilated into and adopted the practices of the dominant culture….The Crutch of Race

Arthur, John. Race, Equality, and the Burdens of History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Bayor, Ronald H. Race and Ethnicity in America: A Concise History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Berry, Mary Frances. Black Resistance, White Law: A Constitutional History of Racism in America. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.

Blank, Owen, Louis L. Knowles, and Kenneth Prewitt. Institutional Racism in America. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

Carr, James H and Nandinee Kutty, Eds. Segregation: The Rising Costs for America. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Feldstein, Stanley. The Poisoned Tongue: A Documentary History of American Racism and Prejudice. New York: Morrow, 1972.

Franklin, John Hope, Ed. Race and History: Selected Essays, 1938-1988. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
Frederickson, George M. Racism: A Short History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Gellman, David Nathaniel and David Quigley, Eds. Jim Crow New York: A Documentary History of Race and Citizenship, 1777-1877. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Ignative, Noel. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Lewis, J. Richard and Catherine M. Lewis, Eds. Jim Crow America: A Documentary History. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2009.

Packard, Jerrold M. American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.

Perry, Richard John. “Race” and Racism: The Development of Modern Racism in America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. New York: Verso, 2007.

Roediger, David R. How Race Survived US History: From Settlement and Slavery to the Obama Phenomenon. London: Verso, 2008.
Tygiel, Jules. Baseball’s Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson and His Legacy, 25th Anniversary Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

White, Terry, Ed. Blacks and Whites Meeting in America: Eighteen Essays on Race. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2003.

Woodward, Corner Vann. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Conclusion: The Celts can remember their heritage and help to end the problem.

There are still a lot of problems:

Boustan, Leah Platt. “Was Postwar Suburbanization "White Flight"? Evidence from the Black Migration.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 125, No. 1 (Feb., 2010), pp. 417-443.

Fairlie, Robert W. and Alexandra M. Resch. “Is There "White Flight" into Private Schools? Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey.” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 84, No. 1 (Feb., 2002), pp. 21-33.

Frey, William H. “Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes.” American Sociological Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Jun., 1979), pp. 425-448.

Grable, Stephen W. “Racial Violence within the Context of Community History.”Phylon (1960-1980), Vol. 42, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1981), pp. 275-283.

Grem, Darren E. “Sam Jones, Sam Hose, and the Theology of Racial Violence.” The Georgia Historical Quarterly, Vol. 90, No. 1 (SPRING 2006), pp. 35-61.

Harrell, Rodney. Understanding Modern Segregation: Suburbanization and the Black Middle Class. College Park, MD: UMI Dissertations Publishing, 2008.

Harris, Fred R. and Roger W. Wilkins, Eds. Quiet Riots: Race and Poverty in the United States. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

Higher Education Extension Service of New Rochelle, New York, “Racism on Campus: Are the Strongest Institutions the Most Vulnerable?” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 7 (Spring, 1995), pp. 38-39.

Lieske, Joel A. “The Conditions of Racial Violence in American Cities: A Developmental Synthesis.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 72, No. 4 (Dec., 1978), pp. 1324-1340

Lrenzulli, Linda A. and Lorraine Evans. “School Choice, Charter Schools, and White Flight.” Social Problems, Vol. 52, No. 3 (August 2005), pp. 398-418

Olzak, Susan, Suzanne Shanahan, and Elizabeth H. McEneaney. “Poverty, Segregation, and Race Riots: 1960 to 1993.”American Sociological Review, Vol. 61, No. 4 (Aug., 1996), pp. 590-613.
Pais, Jeremy F, Scott J. South, and Kyle Crowder. “White Flight Revisited: A Multiethnic Perspective on Neighborhood Out-Migration.” Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 28, No. 3 (Jun., 2009), pp. 321-346.

Wegmann, Robert G. “White Flight and School Resegregation: Some Hypotheses.” The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 58, No. 5 (Jan., 1977), pp. 389-393.

What Can be Done to Help the Situation?

Alcoff, Linda Martin. “What Should White People Do?” Hypatia, Vol. 13, No. 3, Border Crossings: Multicultural and Postcolonial Feminist Challenges to Philosophy (Part 2) (Summer, 1998), pp. 6-26.

Bailey, Alison. “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character.” Hypatia, Vol. 13, No. 3, Border Crossings: Multicultural and Postcolonial Feminist Challenges to Philosophy (Part 2) (Summer, 1998), pp. 27-42.

Goodman, Alan H. Race: Are We so Different? Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

Ignatiev, Noel and John Garvey, Eds. Race Traitor. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Michaels, Walter Benn. “Autobiography of an Ex-White Man.” Transition, No. 73 (1997), pp. 122-143.

Segrest, Mab. Memoir of a Race Traitor. Boston: South End Press, 1994.

Unknown. “Combating Racial Violence: A Legislative Proposal.” Harvard Law Review, Vol. 101, No. 6 (Apr., 1988), pp. 1270-1286.

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